Until 1990, Mongolia was a communist one party state and was officially called Peoples Republic of Mongolia. The gouvernment was modelled according to the Sovjet system. The communist party MPRP was the only legal party. After a period of instabillity during the first twenty years under communist leadership, there was no public expression of dissatisfaction untill December 1989. Collectiviszation of the arable farming and the expansion of permanent residence weren't met with noticeable opposition. In 1990, democratic reforms were put through, including a new constitution.


Official language:

Capital city:
Ulaanbaatar (Ulan Bator)
Gouvernmental form:
Surface area:
1.564.116 km2
2.736.800 (2009)
National anthem:
Bugd Nairamdakh Mongol
Monetary unit:
Tugrik (MNT)
+7 and +8
Web| Code| Tel:
.mn| MNG| 976
Border crossing points:
The following border crossing points with China are open for tourists:

  • Zamiin-Üüd
  • Bichigt
  • Bulgan / Hovd

The following border crossing points with Russia are open for tourists:

  • Sukhbaatar
  • Tsagaannuur
  • Altanbulag
  • Ereentsav
The following vaccinations are recommended by the Dutch Health Organization GGD:
  • Diphtheria, Tetanus and Polio (DTP)
  • Hepatitis A (Hepatitis A-B combination vaccine available)
  • Hepatitis B (Hepatitis A-B combination vaccine available) if your stay in Mongolia is two weeks or longer
  • Rabies
  • Tuberculosis (TBC)
  • Meningitis if your stay in Mongolia is six months or longer
  • Typhoid

Additional information about Mongolia can be found on the website of the Mongolian Tourist Board (in Dutch only)

Additional information